The history of makeup is quite ancient; women probably started wearing makeup around 4000 BCE in Ancient Egypt, and the use of various substances as cosmetics may be even older. Archaeological evidence clearly indicates that both women and men in Ancient Egypt wore makeup, using kohl sticks to blacken the eyes and copper to create rich green eyeshadow.
It is entirely possible that cosmetics have been a part of human existence for a very long time. If earlier societies used things like berries to stain their lips and cheeks, for example, this would not survive at archaeological sites, as the evidence would have long since decayed. The use of cosmetics was widespread enough by 4000 BCE for archaeological sites to include makeup containers, a few rare examples of cosmetics, and references to makeup in art and writing from this period.
Undoubtedly, makeup spread from Egypt to other regions of the world. In the Middle East, makeup was common enough to be mentioned in the Old Testament of the Bible, and both the Greeks and Romans used it. In fact, some Greek societies believed that a woman without makeup might as well be nude. A wide variety of supplementary personal care was also performed, including removing unwanted hair from the body and elaborate hairstyles for both men and women.
Men and women both regularly used makeup historically. Both genders used a variety of substances to bring out their eyes, and many wore lipstick and rouge as well. Many societies have also used various materials to lighten their skin, ranging from rice powder to lead. Some early cosmetics were actually quite dangerous; lead and arsenic were routine ingredients when people started wearing makeup, for example, leading to illness and sometimes deaths.
Trends in makeup have also changed over the centuries, just as fashion trends in general have changed. In Elizabethan England, for example, people favored a more natural look, with less heavy rouge and lipstick, while in the Regency era, both men and women used rouge heavily. Cosmetics were also used on the hair; powdered white hair was extremely popular at one point in time, for example.
Substances like henna, kohl, ground gemstones, and various metals have all been used for centuries in preparations of makeup and unguents, and when people started wearing makeup, they undoubtedly used whatever materials were available, from milk to fruits. Along with makeup, many cultures developed creams to help remove makeup, along with lotions to soothe dry, cracked skin, especially in climates like Egypt. The history of makeup has been quite varied and colorful, and makeup today continues to be incredibly culturally diverse.