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Capital litigation is any court proceeding in which the possibility of imposing the death penalty is decided. In many jurisdictions, the death penalty is called capital punishment, and any criminal trial in which the death penalty can be imposed is called a capital trial. Generally, only persons who commit the most serious homicides are subject to capital punishment. Capital punishment is of course the most serious and irrevocable of punishments, so capital litigation has many special features. It concerns not only the accused person's guilt but also whether he or she is the sort of offender who was properly sentenced to death.
Some jurisdictions impose capital punishment for premeditated murder, or murder of a law enforcement officer, or for other serious homicides. In those jurisdictions, any trial for that type of murder will be capital litigation. The first phase of any such capital litigation is much like any other criminal trial, i.e., to determine the guilt or innocence of the defendant.
Should the accused person or defendant be found guilty in a capital trial, the the trial moves to the penalty phase. That phase focuses on whether the accused should be sentenced to death or a term in prison. In jurisdictions in the U.S. that have the death penalty, for example, this process often focuses on aggravating factors in favor of imposing capital punishment and mitigating factors which weigh against imposing that sentence. Proving or disproving these mitigating and aggravating factors is an important part of capital litigation.
Jurisdictions that use capital punishment usually provide for extensive automatic appeals. Some criminal defense attorneys specialize in handling death penalty appeals. The appeals are intended to weigh carefully whether the evidence supported the defendant's conviction. They also review among other things whether the accused was properly sentenced to suffer capital punishment based on the aggravating and mitigating factors or whether there were any procedural errors made during the trial.
In countries that have a written constitution, capital litigation may also focus on whether a death sentence is constitutionally permissible. The U.S. constitution for example, prohibits "cruel and unusual punishments." An issue often raised on appeal is whether the method of execution to be used to impose the penalty is constitutional. Some attorneys who specialize in capital litigation focus almost entirely on these constitutional challenges rather than on the individual facts and issues raised by a particular case. Capital litigation focusing on these constitutional issues has, for example, challenged whether lethal injection is too cruel to use as a form of execution.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is capital litigation?
Capital litigation refers to the legal process in cases where the death penalty is a potential punishment. This type of litigation involves a criminal trial where the defendant is accused of a capital offense, such as murder or treason, which could result in a sentence of death if convicted. The process is highly complex and includes several phases, including pre-trial motions, jury selection, trial, sentencing, and often many years of appeals.
How does capital litigation differ from other types of criminal litigation?
Capital litigation differs from other criminal litigation primarily due to the severity of the potential punishment—death. As a result, the legal standards and procedural safeguards are significantly higher. For instance, there are often more extensive pre-trial proceedings, a longer jury selection process with careful consideration of jurors' views on capital punishment, and a separate sentencing phase if the defendant is found guilty. Additionally, there are numerous opportunities for appeal, given the irreversible nature of the death penalty.
What are the stages of capital litigation?
The stages of capital litigation typically include: 1) Pre-trial motions, where legal arguments are made regarding the admissibility of evidence and other trial-related issues; 2) Jury selection, which is more rigorous due to the need for jurors to be 'death-qualified'; 3) The guilt phase of the trial, where the prosecution must prove the defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt; 4) The penalty phase, where the same jury decides if the defendant should receive the death penalty; and 5) The appeals process, which can be lengthy and involve multiple levels of courts.
What rights do defendants have in capital litigation?
Defendants in capital litigation have several fundamental rights to ensure a fair trial. These include the right to a competent defense, often with two attorneys; the right to not be tried or convicted for a capital offense without a unanimous jury verdict; the right to present mitigating evidence during the penalty phase; and the right to appeal their conviction and/or sentence, potentially up to the Supreme Court. These rights are designed to prevent wrongful convictions and executions.
How often is the death penalty applied in capital cases?
The application of the death penalty in capital cases varies widely by jurisdiction and over time. According to the Death Penalty Information Center, as of 2021, the number of death sentences and executions in the United States has been declining, with 18 executions and 18 new death sentences in 2021, down from peak years in the late 1990s. This decline reflects a combination of factors, including legal challenges, changes in public opinion, and the availability of life without parole as an alternative sentence. (Source: Death Penalty Information Center, "Year End Report: Death Penalty in 2021," https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/facts-and-research/year-end-reports).