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It took 700 years, but Dante Alighieri can go home again. In 1302, the great Italian author of The Divine Comedy went into exile to avoid a death sentence in Florence, where he had been charged with perjury, extortion, and fraud.
The truth was, Dante had backed the losing side in a political battle, and his mistake made him a target for the victors. Born in Florence around 1265 -- the exact date is unknown -- Dante loved the city and even fell in love with a girl named Beatrice there. But forced to flee, Dante ran off to Ravenna, where he completed his literary masterpiece before dying in 1321.
In more recent centuries, Florence clearly regretted its decision to exile Dante, going so far as to erect a tomb for him in the Basilica of Santa Croce in 1829. But it wasn't until 2008 that city leaders finally decided to formally revoke all charges and even asked Ravenna to return Dante's remains. Ravenna refused, and those wishing to pay their respects must visit that city's Basilica di San Francesco to see Dante's burial site.
The divine Dante:
- Dante first met Beatrice when they were both nine years old. He immediately fell in love, and although they would go on to marry other people, he depicted her as one of his guides in The Divine Comedy.
- Dante was the first poet to use the terza rima rhyme scheme successfully; he employed it throughout The Divine Comedy.
- In order to enter politics, Dante had to gain admission to one of the city's guilds; his medical training allowed him to join the Physicians' and Apothecaries' Guild.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the definition of exile, and how does it differ from other forms of forced displacement?
Exile refers to the state of being barred from one's native country, typically for political or punitive reasons. It differs from other forms of forced displacement, such as refugees who flee due to war or persecution, in that exile is often a formal decision by a government or authority to remove an individual or group from their homeland. Exiles may have restrictions on their return, whereas refugees may be unable to return due to ongoing threats.
What are some historical examples of long-term exiles?
Historical examples of long-term exiles include the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews, which lasted approximately 70 years, and the exile of Napoleon Bonaparte to Saint Helena, where he spent the last six years of his life. Another example is the Dalai Lama, who has been in exile from Tibet since 1959, a period extending over six decades. These instances illustrate that exile can last from a few years to a lifetime.
Can political changes in a person's homeland affect the duration of exile?
Yes, political changes in a person's homeland can significantly affect the duration of exile. For instance, the fall of apartheid in South Africa allowed many exiled activists, including Nelson Mandela, to return after decades. Similarly, political amnesties or regime changes can pave the way for the return of exiles. However, if the political situation remains unchanged or hostile, exiles may be prolonged indefinitely.
Is there a legal time limit on how long a person can be kept in exile?
There is no universal legal time limit on exile as it depends on the laws of the country imposing the exile and international agreements. Some countries may set specific terms, while others may not. International law, particularly the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, asserts the right to return to one's country, but enforcement varies and does not necessarily impose a time limit on exile.
How do modern-day exiles maintain connections with their homeland?
Modern-day exiles maintain connections with their homeland through various means such as the internet, social media, and satellite communications, which allow for the exchange of information and cultural practices. Organizations and diaspora communities also play a crucial role in preserving cultural identity and advocating for the rights of exiles. Advances in technology have made it easier for exiles to stay informed and engaged with their home countries, despite physical distance.